Sunglasses are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are coloured, polarized or darkened.
Sunglasses are more than a practical accessory, perhaps more than any other item of apparel, sunglasses have a psychological story to tell. Part fashion accessory, Part eye-protector, Part disguise – sunglasses are ubiquitous, worn equally by men and women, shades can simultaneously say we are cool, calm, mysterious, intimidating, anonymous or bold.
It is an accessory prevalent across all ages, races and religion of the country. While most people reach for their dark lenses because of bright glare of our closest star, other people wear shades for more reasons than simply sun protection. Sometimes, these reasons cross the threshold into the home, workplace, shopping mall, sports arena or other indoor space.
In the early century, sunglasses were also known as “cheaters”. (cheaters being an American slang term for glasses). Early sunglasses served a special purpose and it wasn’t to block the rays of the sun. smoke-tinted was the first means darkening eye glasses, and the technology was developed in china prior to 1430. These darkened lenses were not vision-corrected, nor were they initially intended to reduce solar glare. For centuries, chinese judges had routinely worn smoke coloured quartz lenses to conceal their eye expression in court. A judge’s evaluation of evidence as credible or medacious was to remain secret until a trial’s conclusion.
Smoke tinted lenses came to serve also as sunglasses, but that was never their primary function. And in 1430, when vision-correcting eye-glasses were introduced into China from Italy, they too were darkened, though mainly for judicial use.
James Ayscough began experimenting with tinted lenses in spectacles in the mid-18th century. These were not “Sunglass” as such; Ayscough believed blue- or green-tinted glass could correct for specific impairments. Protection from the sun’s rays was not his concern.
the popularity of sunglasses is really a twentieth – century phenomenon. And in America, the military which played role in the development of sunscreens, also was at the forefront of sunglass technology.
It was not until the 20th century that Mordern-type sunglasses came to be. In 1929, Sam Foster, founder of the Foster Grant Company sold the first pair of
Foster Grant Sunglasses on the Board-walk in Atlantic city, NJ. By 1930, sunglasses were all the rage.
In the 1930s, the Army Air Corps commissioned the optical firm of Bauseh and Lomb to produce a highly effective spectacle that would protect pilots from the dangers of high-altitude glare. Company Physicists and opticians perfected a special dark-green tint that absorbed light in the yellow band of the spectrum.
With world War II brewing in 1936, Ray Ban designed anti-glare aviator style sunglasses, using polarized lens technology newly created by Edwin H. Land, founder of the polarized corporation.
They also designed a slightly drooping frame perimeter to maximally shield an aviator’s eyes, which repeatedly glanced downward toward a plane’s instrument panel. Fliers were issued, the glasses at no charge and the public in 1937 was able to purchase the model that banned the sun’s rays as Ray-Ban aviator sunglasses.
What helped make sunglasses chic was a clever 1960’s style advertising campaign by comb and glass firm of Foster Grant. Well known fashion designers, as well as Hollywood Stars, escalated the Sunglass craze in the ‘70s with their brand-name lines. A giant industry developed where only a few decades earlier non existed. As women since ancient times had hidden seductively behind an expanded fan or a dipped parasol, modern women and men discovered an allure in wearing sunglasses irrespective of solar glare.
Sunglasses may be great fashion accessories but more importantly, they are of extreme importance when it comes to maintaining good eye health. It protect the eye painful sunburns and may help slow down cataract and macular degeneration. Also, the skin around the eyes including the lids is one of the most prone to skin cancer. Health care professionals recommend eye protection whenever the sun comes out to protect the eyes from Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) and blue light which can cause several serious eye problems. These invisible Ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your eyes. Some of the damage can happen right away and some can occur over a lifetime of exposure. Constant exposure to bright sunlight can damage the cornea (the clear outer part of the eye that allows light through the retina), the lens (the part of the eye responsible for focusing) and the retina (the innermost layer of the eye that sens an image to the brain).
– How does the Sun Damage The Eyes?
There are three types of rays that come from the sun;
– Visible; What you see as colour.
– Infrared; Invisible but felt as heat
– Ultraviolet (also called Uv radiation); Invisible but often called “Sunburn rays”.
TYPES OF SUNGLASSES
– Sunglasses can be of gradient density (dark on the top, tapering to light at the bottom) or double gradient density (dark top and bottom, lighter in the center). They come in handy when sunlight comes from over-head or is reflected into the eyes from below.
– Mirrored Lenses: Lenses can be coated with thin metallic film, which looks like a mirror and reflect light rays, further reducing the amount of light that can reach the eye.
– Photochromatic Lenses: This type of lens changes according to the amount of light. These lenses are helpful under a wide, variety of light conditions. The amount of light, lens thickness and temperature all affect how dark the lenses will get. One problem with these lenses is that they may not change quality enough to adjust to new light situations.
– Polarizing Lenses: These lenses which reduce glare and “balance-up” reflection from flat surfaces, one useful for driving, boating, fishing and other activities where there is glare off the water or ground.
COLOUR OF LENSES
Sunglasses are a visual aid which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened or polarizing lenses to protect the eyes from the sun’s glare.
Neutral gray or “smoke” lenses allow to best colour perception.
Other good choices are amber or brown tints (which usually block more blue light), or green.
Dark lenses may be preferred by those whose eyes are very sensitive to light.
Tint such as red, orange, blue on purple are unsuitable because they may interfere with colour perception and to in too much light. Tint is not related to the degree of Uv protection provided.
REASONS TO WEAR SUNGLASSES
For everyone who faces the day, sunglasses are a must have, besides being a stunning fashion accessory, sunglasses protect your eye from Uv radiation, blue light and intense light that make it so indispensable everyday.
You may think think people wear them for fashion, but when asked you will be surprised that for different people it purposes differ; whether it is to mask hangover, often the true benefits of this popular accessory are lost when fashion or other purposes take over. It may not be your only reason, but your best reason for wearing sunglasses should be to protect your eyes as well as to:-
– Hide Deformities: Deformities of individual eyes could range from temporary black eye to something more permanent (like blindness) conjecvities, boil etc.
– Disguise Identity: Often sunglasses hide the shape or colour of an individual’s eyes. Larger style can also cover more extensive area of the face.
– Intimidate Others: Because sunglasses hide an individual’s face, they can attempt to express power over others by hiding their emotional vulnerabilities.
– Look stylish or express sense of “mystery”. Any high-end department store will stock multiple styles and colours of sunglasses to help their customers better express their sense of fashion.
– As a status symbol: Many of the expensive sunglasses are embla-zoned with recognizable logos or patterns.
– Increased exposure to sunlight can cause skin cancer and will attack the most sensitive area first sunglasses can reduce the risk of skin cancer in the eyelids and areas around your eyes.
– Dark Adaptation: Spending just two to three hours in bright sunlight can hampers the eye’s ability to adapt quickly to night time or indoor light levels. This can make driving at night after spending a day in the sun more hazadous.
– Comfortable vision: The sun’s brightness and glare interferes with comfort and the ability to see clearly by causing people to squint and the eyes to water.
– Blue-light Protection:- Long term exposure to blue and violet portion of the solar spectrum has been implicated as a risk factor for macular degeneration, especially for individuals that are “Sun Sentive”.
– Your Protection: The sun’s Uv radiation can cuase cataract; benign growth on the eye’s surface.
There are also a small number of individuals who actually need to wear sunglass for physical or psychological health reasons. Photo-Phobia is a condition where an individuals is particularly negatively affected by bright light. Such individuals may also develop streaming eyes, migraines or even benign sneezing in response to too much bright light.
Aside from the important function of guarding eyes from sun related eyes diseases and harmful glare, sunwear can also provide a variety of comfort and vision benefits such as: Protecting the eyes from the wind, dust and pollen.
– Helping of comfort dry eyes.
– Preserving goodnight vision (when worn during the day and not at night)
– Enhancing contrast.
– Reducing tearing and squinting.
What To Watch Out For When Purchasing Your Sunglasses
Lenses should be inspected for flaws such as scratches, bubbles, distortions. Poorly made glasses will not damage the structure of your eyes but flaws and distortions in the lenses may cause your eyes to work harder. That can result in squinting, blinking, tearing and even slight headaches, nausea and dizziness.
When Not To Wear Sunglasses
Just as a gentleman always removes his hat while inside, sunglasses are rarely justified indoors. Infact, chronic darkness can increase one’s sensitivity to light and pain; for those that don’t suffer from photophobia, it’s time to take off yours shades inside – it’s not only polite, it’s good for your eyes.
All in all, your eyes are one of the most value features. Can you imagine waking up tomorrow and not being able to see? Many people are born blind and would give anything for the eyes you take for granted everyday. A pair of sunglasses will protect you against a world of eye disorder and pain. If you don’t protect this value possession, before you know it, it could be gone.
TIT BITC ABOUT NIGERIAN MUSICIANS
They are not listed in order of priority or wealth.
– NAETOC:- Born NAETOCHUKWU CHIKWE on 17 Dec. 1982 in Houston, Texas to former Nigerian Ambassador to Ireland, Doc. Mrs Kema Chikwe and Chief Herbert Chikwe. He’s from the Eastern part of Nigeria, Owerri, in Imo State.
After his secondary education in Lagos, he moved to United State for higher education both in SUNY Oil Westbury and a year later, George Washington University, he graduated in 2004 with a B.Sc in Biology in 2013, he returned to school to pursue a higher degree in London at the University of Dundee taking a course in Energy Economics.
He’s a rapper, an Afrobeat artist and record producer.
– Flavour N’abania or simply Flavour:- CHINEDU IZUCHUKWU OKOLI, born on the 23rd Nov. 1983. The first son of a large family consisting of four siblings and seven step-siblings, whose families are not very fond of his musical ambition, they often dismissed it as a pipe dream.
He’s from Umunze in Orumba South LGA, Anambra State; started his musical career as a drummer for a local church in Enugu State known across Africa and the world fix his hit song “Nwa Baby (Ashawo Remix)” and also for his ability to sing in Igbo language.
He’s a songwriter, Multi-Instrumentalist and a performer.
– ICE-PRINCE: PANSHAK HENRI ZAMANI, born 30, Oct. 1986 in the city of Minna, Niger State. At two, he moved with his family to the Mining city of Jos, Plateau State, where he attended St. Murumba College and Science Tutorial College in Jos. In ‘98, he began writing rap songs and started performing them at social event held at his school. Lost his dad in 1999 and the mum died later; dropped out of school in 100 level to focus on music.
In 2009 he participated in Hennessy Artistry Competition, he came first with his lead single “Badman”
He has a son named Jamal with Bimbo Babatunde.
– 9ICE: Born Alexander Abolore Adegbola Adigun
on 17 Jan. 1980, a south-westerner from Ogbomoso in Oyo State, grew up in Bariga, Lagos.
He attended Abule Okuta Primary School and C.M.S. Grammar School, dropped out froim his law-course at Lagos University to concentrate on Music. He grew up in a polygamous home of five wives and nine children.
9ice biggest single is titled “Gongo Aso”, he’s the founder of Alapomeji Records.
– YEMI ALADE: R & B and POP singers
YEMI EBERECHI ALADE born on 13 March 1989 to a Yoruba father, James Alade a former Police Commissioner and to an Igbo Mother helen Uzoma. She’s the fifth child in a family of seven, attended St. Saviour British Primary School, then went to victory Grammar school, Lagos before obtaining a degree in Geography at the University of Lagos
She came into limelight after winning the maiden edition of the Peak Talent Show in 2007, She’s best known for her hit-single “Johnny”
– ASA Prounced “Asha” her stage name which means Hawk in Yoruba language. Born Bukola Elemide in Paris, France on 17 Sept. 1982. Her parent returned to Nigeria when she was two. She grew up in Alagbole a border town in Ogun State near Lagos, she’s the only female child with three brothers.
– WAJE:- AITUAGE IRUOBE, born in Akure, Ondo Stade. The first child and first daughter, her parent divorced when she was young. She attended the word of Faith Group of Schools and joined the choir.
As a young singer, she once sang gospel tunes to the delight of the late Archbishop Benson Idahosa of Church of God Mission Int; he was quiet impressed by her singing and decided to help her throughout her whole secondary school days. She moved to Nsukka to receive a degree in social work at University of Nigeria.
she’s proud to be a mother, her daughter Emerald was born when Waje was 17yrs old and the dad remains unknown.
Her brother smokey Tunes is a producer and her sisters are choristers in their various churches. Waje is an acronym for “words aren’t just enough”
– TERRY G also known as Akpako Master, Ginjah Master, Hitman Born Gabriel Oche Amanyi on March 17 1986 which coincidentally happened to be his mother’s birthday. He’s known for his eccentric dress senses controversial lyrics and akward identity, he’s from Benue State. He started singing in the choir of his local church.
– M. I: Jude Abaga was born on 4th Oct. 1981 in Jos, Plateau State to Pastor and Mrs Abaga from takum, Taraba State. It attended Baptist High School, Jos; he has two brothers, Jesse Jagz who is also in the Nigeria and African Music Scene and Jason Abaga. He’s a hip-hop recording artist.
– Iyanya: IYANYA ONOYOM MBUK was born on the 31st Oct. 1986. On Palm Street in Calabar, Cross River State. His mum was a head-mistress and dad was a forester; his parent died in 2008, Mum aged 42 and dad 50, his elder brother died around that time and grandfather was a clergyman.
He completed his primary and secondary education and university in Calabar, a business-management graduate. He emerged the Winner of MTN’s first ever project fame singing competition in 2008.
To be continued